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Human eye

Temporal summation

In temporal summation, two stimuli, each being too weak to excite, cause a sensation of light if presented in rapid succession on the same spot of the retina; thus, over a certain range of times, up to 0.1 second, the Bunsen-Roscoe law holds: namely, that the intensity of light multiplied by the time of exposure equals a constant. Thus it was found that within this time interval (up to 0.1 second), the total number of quanta required to excite vision was 130, irrespective of the manner in which these were supplied. Beyond this time, summation was still evident, but it was not perfect, so that if the duration was increased to one second the total number of quanta required was 220. Temporal summation is consistent with quantum theory; it has been shown that fluctuations in the number of quanta actually in a light flash are responsible for the variable responsiveness of the eye; increasing the duration of a light stimulus increases the probability that it will contain a given number of quanta, and that it will excite.


In the central nervous system generally, the relay of impulses from one nerve cell, or neuron, to excite another is only one aspect of neuronal interaction. Just as important, if not more so, is the inhibition of one neuron by the discharge in another. So it is in the retina. Subjectively, the inhibitory activity is reflected in many of the phenomena associated with adaptation to light or its reverse. Thus, the decrease in sensitivity of the retina to light during exposure to light is only partially accounted for by bleaching of visual pigment, be it the pigment in rod or cone; an important factor is the onset of inhibitory processes that reduce the convergence of photoreceptors on ganglion cells. Some of the rapidly occurring changes in sensitivity described as alpha adaptation are doubtless purely neural in origin.

Many so-called inductive phenomena indicate inhibitory processes. Thus, the phenomenon of simultaneous contrast, whereby a patch of light appears much darker if surrounded by a bright background than by a black, is due to the inhibitory effect of the surrounding retina on the central region, induced by the bright surrounding. Many colour-contrast phenomena are similarly caused. Thus, if a blue light is projected onto a large white screen, the white screen rapidly appears yellow; the blue stimulus falling on the central retina causes inhibition of blue sensitivity in the periphery, and, hence, the white background will appear to be missing its blue light—white minus blue is a mixture of red and green—i.e., yellow. Particularly interesting from this viewpoint are the phenomena of metacontrast; by this is meant the inductive effect of a primary light stimulus on the sensitivity of the eye to a previously presented light stimulus on an adjoining area of retina. It is a combination of temporal and spatial induction. The effect is produced by illuminating the two halves of a circular patch consecutively for a brief duration. If the left half only, for example, is illuminated for 10 milliseconds it produces a definite sensation of brightness. If, now, both halves are illuminated for the same period, but the right half from 20 to 50 milliseconds later, the left half of the field appears much darker than before and, near the centre, may be completely extinguished. The left field has thus been inhibited by the succeeding, nearby, stimulus. The right field, moreover, appears darker than when illuminated alone—it has been inhibited by the earlier stimulus (paracontrast).


Another visual phenomenon that brings out the importance of inhibition is the sensation evoked when a visual stimulus is repeated rapidly. For example, one may view a screen that is illuminated by a source of light the rays from which may be intercepted at regular intervals by rotating a sector of a circular screen in front of it. If the sector rotates slowly, a sensation of black followed by white is aroused. As the speed increases, the sensation becomes one of flicker—i.e., rapid fluctuations in brightness. Finally, at a certain speed, called the critical fusion frequency, the sensation becomes continuous and the subject is unaware of the alterations in the illumination of the screen.

At high levels of luminance, when cone vision is employed, the fusion frequency is high, increasing with increasing luminance in a logarithmic fashion—the Ferry-Porter law—so that at high levels it may require 60 flashes per second to reach a continuous sensation. Under conditions of night, or scotopic, vision, the frequencies may be as low as four per second. The difference between rod and cone vision in this respect probably resides in the power of the eye to inhibit activity in cones rapidly, so that the sensation evoked by a single flash is cut off immediately, and this leaves the eye ready to respond to the next stimulus. By contrast, the response in the rod lasts so much longer that, when a new stimulus falls even a quarter of a second later, the difference in the state of the rods is insufficient to evoke a change in intensity of sensation; it merely prolongs it. One interesting feature of an intermittent stimulus is that the intensity of the sensation of brightness, when fusion is achieved, is dependent on the relative periods of light and darkness in the cycle, and this gives one a method of grading the effective luminance of a screen; one may keep the intensity of the illuminating source constant and merely vary the period of blackness in a cycle of black and white. The effective luminance will be the average luminance during a cycle; this is known as the Talbot-Plateau law.

Visual acuity

As has been stated, the ability to perceive detail is restricted in the dark-adapted retina when the illumination is such as to excite only the scotopic type of vision; this is in spite of the high sensitivity of the retina to light under the same conditions. The power of distinguishing detail is essentially the power to resolve two stimuli separated in space, so that, if a grating of black lines on a white background is moved farther and farther away from observers, a point is reached when they will be unable to distinguish this stimulus pattern from a uniformly gray sheet of paper. The angle subtended at the eye by the spacing between the lines at the point where they are just resolvable is called the resolving power of the eye. The reciprocal of this angle, in minutes of arc, is called the visual acuity. Thus, a visual acuity of unity indicates a power of resolving detail subtending one minute of arc at the eye; a visual acuity of two indicates a resolution of one-half minute, or 30 seconds of arc. The visual acuity depends strongly on the illumination of the test target, and this is true of both daylight (photopic) and night (scotopic) vision. Thus, with a brightly illuminated target, with the surroundings equally brightly illuminated (the ideal condition), the visual acuity may be as high as two. When the illumination is reduced, the acuity falls, so that, under ordinary conditions of daylight viewing, visual acuity is not much better than unity. Under scotopic conditions, the visual acuity may be only 0.04, so that lines would have to subtend about 25 minutes at the eye to be resolvable; this corresponds to a thickness of 4.4 cm (1.7 inches) at a distance of 6 metres (20 feet).


In the laboratory, visual acuity is measured by the Landolt C, which is a circle with a break in it. The subject is asked to state where the break is when the figure is rotated to successive random positions. The size of the C, and thus of its break, is reduced until the subject makes more than an arbitrarily chosen percentage of mistakes. The angle subtended at the eye by the break in the C at this limit is taken as the resolving power of the eye. The testing of the eyes by the ophthalmologist or optometrist is essentially a determination of visual acuity. Here the subject is presented with the Snellen chart, rows of letters whose details subtend progressively smaller angles at the eye. The row in which, say, five out of six letters are seen correctly is chosen as that which measures the visual acuity. If the details subtended one minute of arc, the visual acuity would be unity. The notation employed is somewhat obscure; a visual acuity of unity would be expressed as 6/6; an acuity of a half as 6/12, and so on; here the numerator is the viewing distance in metres from the chart and the denominator the distance at which details on the letters of the limiting row subtend one minute of arc at the eye.

Anatomical basis: the retinal mosaic

From an anatomical point of view, one may expect the limit to resolving power to be imposed by the “grain” of the retinal mosaic, in the same way that the size of the grains in a light-sensitive photographic emulsion imposes a limit to the accuracy with which detail may be captured in analog photography. Two white lines on a black ground, for example, could not be appreciated as distinct if their images fell on the same or adjacent sets of photoreceptors. If a set of photoreceptors intervened between the stimulated ones, there would be a basis for discrimination, because the message sent to the central nervous system could be that two rows of photoreceptors, separated by an unstimulated row, were sending messages to their bipolar cells. On this basis, the limit to resolution should be the diameter of a foveal cone, or rather the angle subtended by this at the nodal point of the eye. This is about 30 seconds of arc, which, in fact, corresponds to the best visual acuity attainable.

If this grain of the retinal mosaic is to be the basis of resolution, however, one must postulate, in addition, a nervous mechanism that will transmit accurately the events taking place in the individual photoreceptors, in this case the foveal cones. That is, there must be a one-to-one relationship between cones, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, and lateral geniculate cells, so that what is called the local sign of the impulses from a given foveal cone may be obtained. It must be appreciated that restriction on convergence (or its reverse, spread) of messages may be achieved by inhibition: the anatomical connections may be there, but they may be made functionally inoperative by inhibition exerted by other neurons. Thus, the horizontal and amacrine cells might well exert a restraining influence on certain junctions, thereby reducing the spread, or convergence, of messages. It seems likely that the improvement in foveal visual acuity from one to two, brought about by increased luminance of the target and its surroundings, is achieved by an increase in inhibition that tends to make transmission one-to-one in the fovea.

It must be appreciated that true one-to-one connections in the retina do not exist. A cone, although making an exclusive type of synapse with a midget bipolar, may also make a less exclusive contact with a flat bipolar cell. Furthermore, midget bipolars and cones are connected laterally by amacrine and horizontal cells, so that it is most unlikely that a given optic nerve fibre carries messages from only a single cone. The one-to-one relationship may in fact exist under certain conditions, but that is because pathways from other photoreceptors have been blocked, or occluded, by inhibitory processes that keep the line clear for a given cone.

The low visual acuity obtained in night, or rod, vision is now understandable. It has been pointed out that a high sensitivity to light is achieved by the convergence of rods on the higher neurons to allow spatial summation, and it is this convergence that interferes with the resolution of detail. If hundreds of rods converge on a single bipolar cell and if many bipolar cells converge on a single ganglion cell, it is understandable that the unit responsible for resolution may be very large and thus that the visual acuity is very small.

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