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390 Biographies
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Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday

British physicist and chemist

Michael Faraday, English physicist and chemist whose many experiments contributed greatly to the understanding of electromagnetism. Faraday, who became one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century,......
Louis Pasteur in his laboratory, painting by Albert Edelfelt, 1885.
Louis Pasteur

French chemist and microbiologist

Louis Pasteur, French chemist and microbiologist who was one of the most important founders of medical microbiology. Pasteur’s contributions to science, technology, and medicine are nearly without precedent.......
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier

French chemist

Antoine Lavoisier, prominent French chemist and leading figure in the 18th-century chemical revolution who developed an experimentally based theory of the chemical reactivity of oxygen and coauthored the......
J?ns Jacob Berzelius, detail of an oil painting by Olof Johan S?dermark, 1843; in the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.
J?ns Jacob Berzelius

Swedish chemist

J?ns Jacob Berzelius, one of the founders of modern chemistry. He is especially noted for his determination of atomic weights, the development of modern chemical symbols, his electrochemical theory, the......
Justus von Liebig, photograph by F. Hanfstaengl, 1868.
Justus, baron von Liebig

German chemist

Justus, baron von Liebig, German chemist who made significant contributions to the analysis of organic compounds, the organization of laboratory-based chemistry education, and the application of chemistry......
Joseph Black, detail of an engraving by J. Rogers after a portrait by Sir Henry Raeburn
Joseph Black

British scientist

Joseph Black, British chemist and physicist best known for the rediscovery of “fixed air” (carbon dioxide), the concept of latent heat, and the discovery of the bicarbonates (such as bicarbonate of soda).......
Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley

English clergyman and scientist

Joseph Priestley, English clergyman, political theorist, and physical scientist whose work contributed to advances in liberal political and religious thought and in experimental chemistry. He is best remembered......
Mendeleev, Dmitri
Dmitri Mendeleev

Russian scientist

Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian chemist who developed the periodic classification of the elements. Mendeleev found that, when all the known chemical elements were arranged in order of increasing atomic weight,......
Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling

American scientist

Linus Pauling, American theoretical physical chemist who became the only person to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes. His first prize (1954) was awarded for research into the nature of the chemical bond......
Cavendish, Henry
Henry Cavendish

British physicist

Henry Cavendish, natural philosopher, the greatest experimental and theoretical English chemist and physicist of his age. Cavendish was distinguished for great accuracy and precision in research into the......
Claude-Louis Berthollet.
Claude-Louis Berthollet

French chemist

Claude-Louis Berthollet, central French figure in the emergence of chemistry as a modern discipline in the late 18th century. He combined acute experimental skills with fundamental theoretical proposals......
Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, engraving by Ambroise Tardieu.
Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac

French scientist

Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, French chemist and physicist who pioneered investigations into the behaviour of gases, established new techniques for analysis, and made notable advances in applied chemistry.......
John Dalton
John Dalton

British scientist

John Dalton, English meteorologist and chemist, a pioneer in the development of modern atomic theory. Dalton was born into a Quaker family of tradesmen; his grandfather Jonathan Dalton was a shoemaker,......
Marie Curie
Marie Curie

Polish-born French physicist

Marie Curie, Polish-born French physicist, famous for her work on radioactivity and twice a winner of the Nobel Prize. With Henri Becquerel and her husband, Pierre Curie, she was awarded the 1903 Nobel......
Alfred Bernhard Nobel, portrait by Emil ?sterman, 1915; in the Nobel Foundation, Stockholm.
Alfred Nobel

Swedish inventor

Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist who invented dynamite and other more powerful explosives and who also founded the Nobel Prizes. Alfred Nobel was the fourth son of Immanuel and......
Sir Humphry Davy
Sir Humphry Davy

British chemist

Sir Humphry Davy, English chemist who discovered several chemical elements (including sodium and potassium) and compounds, invented the miner’s safety lamp, and became one of the greatest exponents of......
Langmuir, Irving
Irving Langmuir

American chemist

Irving Langmuir, American physical chemist who was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize for Chemistry “for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry.” He was the second American and the first industrial......
Gilbert N. Lewis

American chemist

Gilbert N. Lewis, American physical chemist best known for his contributions to chemical thermodynamics, the electron-pair model of the covalent bond, the electronic theory of acids and bases, the separation......
Weizmann, Chaim
Chaim Weizmann

Israeli president and scientist

Chaim Weizmann, first president of the new nation of Israel (1949–52), who was for decades the guiding spirit behind the World Zionist Organization. Chaim Azriel Weizmann was born of humble parents in......
Harold C. Urey

American chemist

Harold C. Urey, American scientist awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1934 for his discovery of the heavy form of hydrogen known as deuterium. He was a key figure in the development of the atomic......
George Washington Carver
George Washington Carver

American agricultural chemist

George Washington Carver, American agricultural chemist, agronomist, and experimenter whose development of new products derived from peanuts (groundnuts), sweet potatoes, and soybeans helped revolutionize......
Boyle, Robert
Robert Boyle

Anglo-Irish philosopher and writer

Robert Boyle, Anglo-Irish natural philosopher and theological writer, a preeminent figure of 17th-century intellectual culture. He was best known as a natural philosopher, particularly in the field of......
Stanislao Cannizzaro

Italian chemist

Stanislao Cannizzaro, Italian chemist who was closely associated with a crucial reform movement in science. Cannizzaro, the son of a magistrate, studied medicine at the universities in Palermo and Naples......
Alfred Werner, 1913.
Alfred Werner

Swiss chemist

Alfred Werner, Swiss chemist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1913 for his research into the structure of coordination compounds. Werner was the fourth and last child of Jean-Adam Werner,......
Pierre-Eugène-Marcellin Berthelot, engraving by Philippe-Auguste Cattelain.
Pierre-Eugène-Marcellin Berthelot

French chemist

Pierre-Eugène-Marcellin Berthelot, French organic and physical chemist, science historian, and government official. His creative thought and work significantly influenced the development of chemistry in......
Stahl, Georg Ernst
Georg Ernst Stahl

German chemist and physician

Georg Ernst Stahl, German educator, chemist, and esteemed medical theorist and practitioner. His chemical theory of phlogiston dominated European chemistry until the “Chemical Revolution” at the end of......
Charles Gerhardt, engraving
Charles Gerhardt

French chemist

Charles Gerhardt, French chemist who was an important precursor of the German chemist August Kekule and his structural organic chemistry. Gerhardt’s Swiss-born father, Samuel Gerhardt, initially worked......
W?hler, detail of a lithograph by R. Hoffmann, 1856
Friedrich W?hler

German chemist

Friedrich W?hler, German chemist who was one of the finest and most prolific of the 19th century. W?hler, the son of an agronomist and veterinarian, attended the University of Marburg and then the University......
Glenn T. Seaborg, 1968.
Glenn T. Seaborg

American chemist

Glenn T. Seaborg, American nuclear chemist best known for his work on isolating and identifying transuranium elements (those heavier than uranium). He shared the 1951 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Edwin......
Auguste Laurent

French chemist

Auguste Laurent, French chemist who helped lay the foundations of organic chemistry. After conventional classical schooling, Laurent earned an undergraduate degree in engineering from the prestigious école......
Michel-Eugène Chevreul, c. 1860.
Michel-Eugène Chevreul

French chemist

Michel-Eugène Chevreul, French chemist who elucidated the chemical composition of animal fats and whose theories of colour influenced the techniques of French painting. Chevreul belonged to a family of......
Joseph-Louis Proust, medallion by Pierre-Jean David
Joseph-Louis Proust

French chemist

Joseph-Louis Proust, French chemist who proved that the relative quantities of any given pure chemical compound’s constituent elements remain invariant, regardless of the compound’s source. This is known......
Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin

English chemist

Dorothy Hodgkin, English chemist whose determination of the structure of penicillin and vitamin B12 brought her the 1964 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Dorothy Crowfoot was the eldest of four sisters whose......
Sir John Herschel.
Sir John Herschel, 1st Baronet

English astronomer

Sir John Herschel, 1st Baronet, English astronomer and successor to his father, Sir William Herschel, in the field of stellar and nebular observation and discovery. An only child, John was educated briefly......
R.B. Woodward, 1966.
Robert Burns Woodward

American chemist

Robert Burns Woodward, American chemist best known for his syntheses of complex organic substances, including cholesterol and cortisone (1951), strychnine (1954), and vitamin B12 (1971). He was awarded......
William Ramsay
Sir William Ramsay

British chemist

Sir William Ramsay, British physical chemist who discovered four gases (neon, argon, krypton, xenon) and showed that they (with helium and radon) formed an entire family of new elements, the noble gases.......
James Hutton
James Hutton

Scottish geologist

James Hutton, Scottish geologist, chemist, naturalist, and originator of one of the fundamental principles of geology—uniformitarianism, which explains the features of the Earth’s crust by means of natural......
Karl Ziegler

German chemist

Karl Ziegler, German chemist who shared the 1963 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with the Italian chemist Giulio Natta. Ziegler’s research with organometallic compounds made possible industrial production of......
William Hyde Wollaston, detail of a pencil drawing by J. Jackson; in the National Portrait Gallery, London
William Hyde Wollaston

British scientist

William Hyde Wollaston, British scientist who enhanced the techniques of powder metallurgy to become the first to produce and market pure, malleable platinum. He also made fundamental discoveries in many......
Guyton de Morveau, Louis Bernard
Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau

French chemist and educator

Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau, French chemist who played a major part in the reform of chemical nomenclature. The son of a lawyer, Guyton added the title de Morveau (from a family property) to his name......
Jābir ibn ?ayyān, Abū Mūsā
Abū Mūsā Jābir ibn ?ayyān

Muslim alchemist

Abū Mūsā Jābir ibn ?ayyān, Muslim alchemist known as the father of Arabic chemistry. He systematized a “quantitative” analysis of substances and was the inspiration for Geber, a Latin alchemist who developed......
German Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, c. 1780.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Swedish chemist

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, German Swedish chemist who independently discovered oxygen, chlorine, and manganese. Scheele, the son of a German merchant, was born in a part of Germany that was under Swedish jurisdiction.......
Helmont, Jan Baptista van
Jan Baptista van Helmont

Belgian scientist

Jan Baptista van Helmont, Flemish physician, philosopher, mystic, and chemist who recognized the existence of discrete gases and identified carbon dioxide. Van Helmont was born into a wealthy family of......
Henry-Louis Le Chatelier

French chemist

Henry-Louis Le Chatelier, French chemist who is best known for Le Chatelier’s principle, which makes it possible to predict the effect a change of conditions (such as temperature, pressure, or concentration......
August Kekule von Stradonitz

German chemist

August Kekule von Stradonitz, German chemist who established the foundation for the structural theory in organic chemistry. Kekule was born into an upper-middle-class family of civil servants and as a......
Sir Derek H.R. Barton.
Sir Derek H.R. Barton

British chemist

Sir Derek H.R. Barton, joint recipient, with Odd Hassel of Norway, of the 1969 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on “conformational analysis,” the study of the three-dimensional geometric structure......
Jean-Baptiste-André Dumas, engraving, 1879
Jean-Baptiste-André Dumas

French chemist

Jean-Baptiste-André Dumas, French chemist who pioneered in organic chemistry, particularly organic analysis. Dumas’s father was the town clerk, and Dumas attended the local school. Although briefly apprenticed......
Willard Frank Libby

American chemist

Willard Frank Libby, American chemist whose technique of carbon-14 (or radiocarbon) dating provided an extremely valuable tool for archaeologists, anthropologists, and earth scientists. For this development......
Emil Fischer.
Emil Fischer

German chemist

Emil Fischer, German chemist who was awarded the 1902 Nobel Prize for Chemistry in recognition of his investigations of the sugar and purine groups of substances. Fischer was the eighth child and only......
Hermann Kolbe.
Hermann Kolbe

German chemist

Hermann Kolbe, German chemist who accomplished the first generally accepted synthesis of an organic compound from inorganic materials. Kolbe studied chemistry with Friedrich W?hler at the University of......
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